Defining Baramin by Hybridization

Since kinds are to reproduce, the ability of two animals to reproduce should be an obvious indicator of an original kind. However, there are difficulties with actual observation. One of the difficulties of defining kinds by reproduction is that different species seldom come together to reproduce. The odds are not in their favor because they can be from different continents or be active during different times of the day. Sometimes, they are even enemies in the wild. They do not favor each other in attracting a mate because of these barriers. Therefore, hybrids between different breeds within a kind often occur only in captivity, such as zoos and aquariums where they are confined together.

Difficulties of Hybrid Studies

Although hybridization is a useful tool in determining kinds, it has many drawbacks and uncertainties as well. Successful hybrids show that two species are from the same kind. Unsuccessful hybrids are less conclusive as many barriers exist to inhibit reproduction of simply an unsuccessful attempt at mating. One of the greatest barriers is a large geographical distance which would cause the animals to never, or seldom, meet. Similar to this is the distance of time as fossils cannot be used in hybridization.

Views on Hybridization

Carolus Linnaeus

Carolus Linnaeus based his early work on characteristics and he tried to define a species / kind as organisms that could interbreed among themselves, but not with other organisms. Later he used hybridization and realized that the species level was too narrow and suggested the Genus level might represent kinds.

Frank Marsh

Frank Marsh considered ‘after his kind’ as a biological law (rather than a moral law) and emphasized the importance of reproduction and successful hybridization. He emphasized interbreeding as a method of determining kinds. This, in effect, defined a created kind at the highest taxonomic level which could interbreed. He changed in his later years when he followed morphological considerations more than reproductive ones. Quite often, though, he found differences in morphology and reproduction went together.

Siegfried Scherer

Siegfried Scherer also worked with hybridization, but he took it in a different direction. He allowed either two animals to hybridize with each other (as others did above) or each with a third organism. In other words, if A can breed with C and B can breed with C then A and B can be considered as the same kind along with C. He also suggested that true fertilization must go passed the early stages of embryogenesis. He suggested that fertilization is not enough to be considered successful because the first few divisions of the cell can be strictly through maternal control. He suggested that there must be a successful expression of both paternal and maternal genes.

XXXVIC. Last Updated: 10/01/2016
Todd Elder

Todd Elder

Todd Elder has a deep desire to understand and experience Creation. As a Baraminologist, his current research includes developing the Katagenos Species Concept, the Natanzera Classification System, and the Floral Formula Method of determining Plant Kinds. As an author and speaker, his books and seminar materials are designed to encourage a growing relationship with the Creator.
Todd Elder

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