Methodology for Defining Baramin

Floral Formula

The field of Baraminology makes an attempt to determine what the original created kinds were as well as connect different species within a kind today. One method of this work deals with reproduction, which is a very strong indication that two plants or animals are related. A second method is statistical analysis of characteristics of the plants or animals to determine if they are similar. The statistical approach is not as strong for evidence, but is especially useful in working with fossils.

Understanding Created Kinds and Species

A summary article defining and differentiating Created Kinds and Species.

Traditional Taxonomy

Taxonomy is a classification system for species based on common characteristics. It comes from the Greek word τάξις ‘Taxis’ which means ‘arrangement’. It traditionally studies the morphology (form and structure) of species. More recently, studies of behavior and genetics have also become common.

Floral Formula

Plant Taxonomy includes the use of the Floral Formula. This represents the Calyx, Corolla, Androecium, and Gynoecium. The various combinations of these characters are suggested as representing the individual Created Kinds / Baramin level and can be expressed in a floral formula such as the Malvacibar Kind (including the Hibiscus) with a formula of CA3-5 CO5 A G1-∞.


Cladistics is a classification system for species based on ancestry. The term ‘Cladistics’ comes from the Greek word κλάδος ‘klados’ which means ‘branch’. A Cladogram is a branching diagram showing the ancestral relationship between species.


Roger Sanders added the concept of Cognitum, or a grouping of creatures that seem to naturally go together by use of the senses. However, this type of grouping can be both inside and outside of a kind. For example, one would likely group all of the birds together because of their feathers, yet this is much greater in scope than a single kind. The general differences between cows, horse, and pigs would be enough evidence to the senses to tell that they belong to different kinds. Although imprecise, it does find usefulness where hybridization data is lacking.


Since kinds are to reproduce, the ability of two animals to reproduce should be an obvious indicator of an original kind. However, there are difficulties with actual observation. One of the difficulties of defining kinds by reproduction is that different species seldom come together to reproduce. The odds are not in their favor because they can be from different continents or be active during different times of the day. Sometimes, they are even enemies in the wild. They do not favor each other in attracting a mate because of these barriers. Therefore, hybrids between different breeds within a kind often occur only in captivity, such as zoos and aquariums where they are confined together.

Discontinuity Systematics

Walter ReMine brought the concept of Discontinuity Systematics into the realm of Baraminology. Discontinuities are described as “large scale morphological gaps and an absence of large-scale phylogeny”. Simply put, this means that there were big differences in appearance and no line of distinct ancestral lines from which it came. This was an important concept since the Theory of Evolution has no place for discontinuities. In fact, quite the opposite is true in that Evolution must look for connecting relationships. This work also brought the phrase ‘successive approximation’ in as studies come closer and closer to the proper boundaries of created kinds.

Statistical Baraminology

Analysis of Patterns Study of Baramin

In an attempt to find a way to determine baramins without reproduction, David Cavanaugh introduced the Analysis of Patterns (ANOPA) technique. This technique makes characteristics of the animal a distinct statistical dimension which is placed into a multi-dimensional space. It is later simplified to a three dimensional grid. Different kinds should come out to different spaces on the grid and show the distinct groups.

Multidimensional Scaling

Todd Wood developed the use of multidimensional scaling (MDS) which also statistically measures the distance between one baramin and another. This method has typically shown a large baraminic distance around the rank of family. This strongly suggests that the most common comparison of a kind with modern taxonomy is the family level.

Last Updated: 06 / 2017
Todd Elder

Todd Elder

Todd Elder has a deep desire to understand and experience Creation. As a Baraminologist, his current research includes developing the Katagenos Species Concept, the Natanzera Classification System, and the Floral Formula Method of determining Plant Kinds. As an author and speaker, his books and seminar materials are designed to encourage a growing relationship with the Creator.
Todd Elder

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