Baraminology in the Earth Sciences

Although the earth sciences do not directly relate to Created Kinds and Baraminology, the underlying principles of geology, hydrology, and climatology help provide support for the general concepts of Creationism and the Model of Created Kinds.

Earth Sciences

The earth sciences further demonstrate the accuracy of the Genesis account. Geological evidence mounts rapidly by examining the rates of erosion and deposition alone are enough to show a young planet, but then there is the rapid formation and deformation of sedimentary layers which give strong evidence for a worldwide flood. Climatology shows that the pre-flood and post-flood worlds differed dramatically including reduced oxygen and pressure as well as a rapid ice age which followed the flood.


Geology is the scientific study of the Earth’s land forms and the processes by which it is shaped and changed. There is an emphasis on the processes of deposition and erosion which has formed the surface that we know today. There are about 3,000 naturally occurring minerals formed by heat, crystallization, and pressure. These minerals are found as igneous rocks formed from cooling magma, sedimentary rocks formed by deposition, and metamorphic rocks formed by heat and pressure. One of the major sections of planetary geology is the rock cycle which includes the movement of the Earth’s lithosphere that is also known as plate tectonics. Another field is geomorphology which examines the surface processes of weathering and erosion. Geologic evidence for Creation includes the rates of erosion, deposition, and decay which are consistent with a planet only thousands of years old and the rapid formation and deformation of sedimentary layers fitting a worldwide flood model.


Hydrology is the section of science that studies the physical characteristics, mechanics, and dynamics of water and it’s effects upon the Earth. Special attention is given to the hydrologic cycle close to the surface of the Earth. Hydrology includes the study of the physical and chemical characteristics of water and its movement within Earth’s hydrosphere. This includes the study of hydraulics, the mechanics and dynamics of liquid water. Due to the abundance of water upon the Earth and its high specific heat value, water has a large impact upon climate and heat storage. Many fields of hydrology exist. One major category is oceanography which studies the oceans and seas with the actions of waves, currents, tides, and sea ice. There is also limnology which is the study of lakes, both natural and man-made. Water is the principal constituent of all living things which makes the availability of water a major factor in having an inhabitable environment. About 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by sea water. The actions of water has produced the Earth’s current surface features more than any other physical process and gives strong evidence for a worldwide flood.


Meteorology is the branch of science focusing on the Earth’s atmosphere and weather. It focuses on the structure and dynamics of the atmospheric layers. Meteorology includes the field of climatology. This is the study of long term atmospheric patterns and influences. It also includes aeronomy which is the study of the physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere. Meteorology includes the study of day to day activity found in the lower stratosphere and troposphere. This is used primarily in weather forecasting. The climatological evidence for Creation includes the drastic changes to the atmosphere that occurred during the time of the flood including reduced oxygen and pressure as well as the existence of the polar ice caps.

Todd Elder

Todd Elder

Todd Elder has a deep desire to understand and experience Creation. As a Baraminologist, his current research includes developing the Katagenos Species Concept, the Natanzera Classification System, and the Floral Formula Method of determining Plant Kinds. As an author and speaker, his books and seminar materials are designed to encourage a growing relationship with the Creator.
Todd Elder

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