What Is Baraminology?

Baraminology is defined as the study of created kinds and generally includes the classification of plants and animals from a creationist perspective. The field of Baraminology makes an attempt to determine what the original created kinds were as well as connect different species within a kind today. The Model of Created Kinds is based on the genesis account of Creation. It includes no random generation of life from non-life, kinds fully formed and functional with no primitive ancestors, and gaps between forms of both living and fossilized kinds. There is room for acclimation to environments and variation within a kind known as speciation and a limit to the amount of change that can occur within descendants. The limited amount of change is known as the fixity of kinds.

Professor Teaching Students about Baraminology with Dinosaurs Display

Professor Teaching Students about Baraminology, the Study of Created Kinds, with a Museum Dinosaur Display

Science

Science is defined as the knowledge gained from observation and experimentation or the process by which we gain that information. The word science comes from the Latin word ‘scientia’ which is translated as ‘knowledge’. This knowledge is based on things that can be observed with the senses and, therefore, deals with the physical world and universe. Scientific models are formed to explain something that has been witnessed. These models are then tested through experimentation to see if the models are correct or not correct. The process by which a model is tested is referred to as the scientific method.

The Scientific Method

The scientific method is a process by which models are made and carefully tested. The model generally first takes the form of a hypothesis or suggestion of how the phenomena under study occurs. After repeated testing which shows support for the hypothesis, it then becomes a theory with widespread acceptance as being accurate in many situations but still capable of being refined or changed with further testing. If a theory is found to be true and accurate in all situations in which it is involved, then it becomes a law. Very few hypotheses or theories make it to the status of a law.

Scientific Models

The science model is a testable idea used to describe a phenomena. Models are based on a set of observations and made by finding patterns in what is observed. Generally, because a model works with patterns, it is capable of being applied to many similar situations. Science models need to be testable, falsifiable, or able to be disproved in some way.

Worldviews and Pseudoscience

Pseudoscience can be defined as an idea that is presented as scientific but which does not use the scientific method, lacks evidence, or cannot be tested. Pseudoscience is a term that is often used, and abused, by both sides of those involved with the Creation and Evolution debate.

There is no ‘War on Science’

The March 2015 edition of National Geographic has an article entitled ‘The Age of Disbelief’ and shows a cover mixing science, religion, and conspiracy theories. The article inside reads like someone on a rant. It contains logical fallacies. It uses fictional books and movies from popular culture as examples to prove a point.

Research Methods

Research methodology is defined as a process or systematic approach of studying a topic and collecting information for the purpose of discovering something new or understanding it better. It can include either qualitative or quantitative data and often involves specialized terminology within the field being studied. Within baraminology, the primary methods of research involve studies of hybridization, morphology, cladistics, and statistical comparison.

Traditional Taxonomy

Taxonomy is a classification system for species based on common characteristics. It comes from the Greek word τάξις ‘Taxis’ which means ‘arrangement’. It traditionally studies the morphology (form and structure) of species. More recently, studies of behavior and genetics have also become common.

Floral Formula

Plant Taxonomy includes the use of the Floral Formula. This represents the Calyx, Corolla, Androecium, and Gynoecium. The various combinations of these characters are suggested as representing the individual Created Kinds / Baramin level and can be expressed in a floral formula such as the Malvacibar Kind (including the Hibiscus) with a formula of CA3-5 CO5 A G1-∞.

Cladistics

Cladistics is a classification system for species based on ancestry. The term ‘Cladistics’ comes from the Greek word κλάδος ‘klados’ which means ‘branch’. A Cladogram is a branching diagram showing the ancestral relationship between species.

Cognitum

Roger Sanders added the concept of Cognitum, or a grouping of creatures that seem to naturally go together by use of the senses. However, this type of grouping can be both inside and outside of a kind. For example, one would likely group all of the birds together because of their feathers, yet this is much greater in scope than a single kind. The general differences between cows, horse, and pigs would be enough evidence to the senses to tell that they belong to different kinds. Although imprecise, it does find usefulness where hybridization data is lacking.

Hybridization

Since kinds are to reproduce, the ability of two animals to reproduce should be an obvious indicator of an original kind. However, there are difficulties with actual observation. One of the difficulties of defining kinds by reproduction is that different species seldom come together to reproduce. The odds are not in their favor because they can be from different continents or be active during different times of the day. Sometimes, they are even enemies in the wild. They do not favor each other in attracting a mate because of these barriers. Therefore, hybrids between different breeds within a kind often occur only in captivity, such as zoos and aquariums where they are confined together.

Discontinuity Systematics

Walter ReMine brought the concept of Discontinuity Systematics into the realm of Baraminology. Discontinuities are described as “large scale morphological gaps and an absence of large-scale phylogeny”. Simply put, this means that there were big differences in appearance and no line of distinct ancestral lines from which it came. This was an important concept since the Theory of Evolution has no place for discontinuities. In fact, quite the opposite is true in that Evolution must look for connecting relationships. This work also brought the phrase ‘successive approximation’ in as studies come closer and closer to the proper boundaries of created kinds.

Analysis of Patterns Study of Baramin

In an attempt to find a way to determine baramins without reproduction, David Cavanaugh introduced the Analysis of Patterns (ANOPA) technique. This technique makes characteristics of the animal a distinct statistical dimension which is placed into a multi-dimensional space. It is later simplified to a three dimensional grid. Different kinds should come out to different spaces on the grid and show the distinct groups.

Multidimensional Scaling

Todd Wood developed the use of multidimensional scaling (MDS) which also statistically measures the distance between one baramin and another. This method has typically shown a large baraminic distance around the rank of family. This strongly suggests that the most common comparison of a kind with modern taxonomy is the family level.

Physical Sciences

The physical sciences are defined as study concerned with inanimate objects including physics, chemistry, and astronomy. Although the physical sciences do not directly relate to Created Kinds and Baraminology, the underlying principles found within these topics help provide support for the general concepts of Creationism and the Model of Created Kinds.

Laws of Thermodynamics in Creation

The word ‘thermodynamics’ comes from the combination of two Greek words. The first word is ‘therme’ which is a reference to heat. The second word is ‘dunamis’ which is a reference to power (think of the English word dynamic). The scientific field of thermodynamics examines ‘heat power’ in regards to an ability to do work and the conversion of heat to other forms of energy. The laws and mathematical formulas of thermodynamics are as fundamental and absolute as science is able to produce. All things in the observable universe follow these laws including the weather on Earth driven by the heat of the sun, plants producing food using solar energy, and biological functions in the cells of the body which use heat stored in molecules.

Concepts of Planetary Magnetism

Within naturalistic origin concepts, the primary explanation of a magnetic field on a planetary scale is the dynamo theory. The dynamo theory states that a planet must have a molten metal core that has fluid motion. However, the reality of the measurement of magnetic fields does not match and cannot be explained using the dynamo theory.

Earth Sciences

The earth sciences are defined as study concerned with the structure and composition of the earth and the processes by which it changes. Although the earth sciences do not directly relate to Created Kinds and Baraminology, the underlying principles of geology, hydrology, and climatology help provide support for the general concepts of Creationism and the Model of Created Kinds.

Biological Sciences

The biological sciences are defined as study concerned with life and living organisms including physical structure, behavior, and physiology. Research in botany, zoology, anthropology, ecology, and genetics contains the underlying principles and evidence of baraminology and the Model of Created Kinds. Hybridization, when an animal or plant breeds with another species, is of particular interest because it demonstrates the amount of variation that can occur within a single kind.

Citrus Kind Hybrids

In Puerto Rico, a hybrid formed between two species in the genus of Citrus that is known as the Chironja. It is a hybrid between the china (a type of orange) and the tironja (a type of grapefruit). The resulting hybrid was appreciated because it was sweeter and easier to peel than a standard grapefruit. However, it was found to typically be infertile. Through methods of grafting, it has become an established food in some parts of the world. That they were able to hybridize shows that these two citrus fruits are from the same created kind.

Grass Kind Hybrids

Another intentional hybrid, which proved successful, is the grain called triticale. It was produce by mixing wheat, Triticum, and rye, Secale. This plant is not only fertile, but is now gaining popularity in cooking.

Camel Hybrids

One of the intentional hybrids is the making of a cama, a cross between a camel and a llama.

Cat Hybrids

Many hybrid examples can be found within the cat family, Felidae, as both small and large cats or wild and domesticated cats are found to hybridize.

Dolphin Hybrids

One interesting hybrid is the Wholphin. This is a cross between a dolphin, Tursiops, and a false killer whale, Pseudorca.

Horse Hybrids

The horse family also has a lot of hybridization including horses, donkeys, and zebras.

Has the Anthropocene Epoch (Human Age) begun?

The phrase, Anthropocene Epoch, is only a few decades old and is not yet a formal geologic period. But debates continue as to when this Epoch should start such as in the recently published article, First Atomic Blast Proposed as Start of Anthropocene. Has a new age begun as evolutionists view it? Or has man always been the main component in history as Creationists would view it?

Nebraska Man and the Scopes Trial

The fossil tooth that became known as Nebraska Man has been given much attention in the creation / evolution debate. It has also been given some publicity in several movies over the last few decades. Sadly, much of what is presented is misinformation about the topic and makes a good example of how people can accidentally or intentionally misunderstand or misrepresent the facts.

Did an Asteroid Kill European Dinosaurs 66 Million Years Ago?

Science Daily produced this article “Dinosaurs wiped out rapidly in Europe 66 million years ago” on Jan. 13, 2015. This is a slight twist or addition to a familiar evolutionary explanation for the extinction of dinosaurs that adds the death of European dinosaurs to the same time of death as American dinosaurs. The primary theme involves the Chicxulub (pronounced cheek-she-loob) asteroid which struck the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. The resulting catastrophe, much like the concept of a nuclear winter, was supposedly the agent that killed the dinosaurs. But was it?

Have Scientists Explained Soft Tissue on Dinosaur Fossils?

Within the Creation and Evolution debate, anything that is strong evidence for a young earth is a matter evolutionists take seriously – in short, they are driven to find a way to explain it away. In recent years, one of the strong evidences has been the finding of soft tissues still preserved on dinosaur fossils. Scientists have been at a loss to answer how tissue could survive for 60 million years (the age which they claim dinosaurs disappeared from history). Recently, Mary Schweitzer has suggested that iron could act as a preservative on soft tissues. Is this really so?

Sulfurous Bacteria – the Largest Gap of Non-Evolution Yet

Scientists studying sulfurous bacteria specimens collected off the coast of Chile have found they are indistinguishable from preserved specimens found in Australian rocks that are dated 2.3 and 1.8 billion years old. This includes having similar shape and chemistry.

Is Aegirocassis Benmoulae an Arthropod Transition?

A fossil, called Aegirocassis benmoulae, has been suggested as an arthropod transitional form , but it shows no evolution, just a complete large animal.

Ecological Sciences

Ecology is defined as the interaction of an organism with the physical environment or with other organisms. Researching the effects of the heat or cold, dry or wet, high or low altitude, and of impacts of vegetation layers makes it easier to understand how plants and animals have acclimated to each environment as they have.

Exploring Our World

There is no better way to learn about an environment than by spending time within it and directly experiencing the conditions that plants and animals endure.

Last Updated: 2018-07-11
Todd Elder

Todd Elder

Todd Elder has a deep desire to understand and experience Creation. As a Baraminologist, his current research includes developing the Katagenos Species Concept, the Natanzera Classification System, and the Floral Formula Method of determining Plant Kinds. As an author and speaker, his books and seminar materials are designed to encourage a growing relationship with the Creator.
Todd Elder

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