Baraminology in the Biological Sciences

The biological sciences of botany, zoology, anthropology, ecology, and genetics contain the underlying principles of baraminology and help provide support for the general concepts of Creationism and the Model of Created Kinds.

Within the biological sciences is, perhaps, the best evidence. As our knowledge of genetics grows, we find even the possibility of evolution producing it quickly shrinking. The fossil record, rather than showing gradual change, shows large gaps between types of creatures and shows the destructive power of the Flood. Both botany and zoology show the sudden appearance of complex life forms without intermediate kinds. Within anthropology, linguistics, culture, and other forms of archaeology show man did not develop form a primitive animal and shows the sudden appearance of many developed and complex language groups that would correlate with Babel.


Zoology is the scientific study of animals including animal behavior, classification, relationship to environment, and anatomy. It includes both wild animals and domesticated animals used for food or work. The fossil record gives strong support for a special creation by the sudden appearance of complex life forms without intermediate kinds.


Botany is the branch of science that studies the physical properties of plants. It is most commonly associated with flowering plants but it also includes algae, conifers, ferns, fungi, lichens, and mosses. Botany includes many subdivisions of scientific study. Plant morphology examines the structure and form of plants. Plant physiology considers the function and chemistry of plants. Plant ecology focuses on the interactions a plant has with its environment and other organisms. Plant systematics works at identifying and classifying plants in ranks. The botanical sciences are used heavily in many fields including agriculture, horticulture, and forestry.


Anthropology is the study of mankind and cultures. It includes the sub-fields of biology, linguistics, society and culture, and archaeology. The evidence for creation in Anthropology includes the sudden appearance of well developed and complex languages, simultaneous existence with dinosaurs, and the lack of transitional fossils relating man to other organisms. Although minor external differences occur in appearance throughout the world, only one kind is known to exist.


Biology is the scientific study of living organisms. This includes concepts of breeding and speciation.


Studies the relationships of organisms and their environments.


The study of inherited characteristics through genetics and epigenetics.

Fossil Record

Within a creationist view, many things can be expected under the conditions of such a flood because floods are known for laying down rocks and fossils. First, the fossils should show catastrophic and rapid formation, there should be clearly defined kinds of plants and animals with no transition forms in between, and both simple and complex organisms should exist from the beginning. Second, larger fossils should become polystrate in position as the flood layers quickly settle into place. Third, there should be human artifacts to be found in the fossil record. Furthermore, there would likely be layering where sea life is buried first. The bodies of animals and humans would be less likely because of rotting and decaying.

Todd Elder

Todd Elder

Todd Elder has a deep desire to understand and experience Creation. As a Baraminologist, his current research includes developing the Katagenos Species Concept, the Natanzera Classification System, and the Floral Formula Method of determining Plant Kinds. As an author and speaker, his books and seminar materials are designed to encourage a growing relationship with the Creator.
Todd Elder

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