Baraminology in Science

The topic of Creationism is not a salvation issue. However, anything, like Evolutionism, that causes doubt or difficulty with understanding or believing Scripture is yet another stumbling block that inhibits a person from becoming a believer or a stronger believer. Evolutionism has spread rapidly in the last several decades. At the same time, Creationism has been slow in responding. Baraminology, the scientific study of created kinds, is one of the responses that is now forming and challenging the Theory of Evolution. The more we study kinds, the more evidence is discovered to show that science supports Creationism.

Scientific Research

The process of scientific research and investigation and some difficulties in achieving a high standard.


Introduction to Baraminology

Baraminology is defined as the study of Created Kinds and more generally refers to the classification of plants and animals from a Creationist viewpoint. The field of Baraminology makes an attempt to determine what the original created kinds were as well as connect different species within a kind today. One method of this work deals with reproduction, which is a very strong indication that two plants or animals are related. A second method is statistical analysis of characteristics of the plants or animals to determine if they are similar.

Methodology for Defining Baramin

The field of Baraminology makes an attempt to determine what the original created kinds were as well as connect different species within a kind today. One method of this work deals with reproduction, which is a very strong indication that two plants or animals are related. A second method is statistical analysis of characteristics of the plants or animals to determine if they are similar. The statistical approach is not as strong for evidence, but is especially useful in working with fossils.

Biological Sciences

Within the biological sciences is, perhaps, the best evidence. As our knowledge of genetics grows, we find even the possibility of evolution producing it quickly shrinking. The fossil record, rather than showing gradual change, shows large gaps between types of creatures and shows the destructive power of the Flood. Both botany and zoology show the sudden appearance of complex life forms without intermediate kinds. Within anthropology, linguistics, culture, and other forms of archaeology show man did not develop form a primitive animal and shows the sudden appearance of many developed and complex language groups that would correlate with Babel.


Zoology is the scientific study of animals including animal behavior, classification, relationship to environment, and anatomy. It includes both wild animals and domesticated animals used for food or work. The fossil record gives strong support for a special creation by the sudden appearance of complex life forms without intermediate kinds.


Botany is the branch of science that studies the physical properties of plants. It is most commonly associated with flowering plants but it also includes algae, conifers, ferns, fungi, lichens, and mosses. Botany includes many subdivisions of scientific study. Plant morphology examines the structure and form of plants. Plant physiology considers the function and chemistry of plants. Plant ecology focuses on the interactions a plant has with its environment and other organisms. Plant systematics works at identifying and classifying plants in ranks. The botanical sciences are used heavily in many fields including agriculture, horticulture, and forestry.


Anthropology is the study of mankind and cultures. It includes the sub-fields of biology, linguistics, society and culture, and archaeology. The evidence for creation in Anthropology includes the sudden appearance of well developed and complex languages, simultaneous existence with dinosaurs, and the lack of transitional fossils relating man to other organisms. Although minor external differences occur in appearance throughout the world, only one kind is known to exist.


Biology is the scientific study of living organisms. This includes concepts of breeding and speciation.


Studies the relationships of organisms and their environments.


The study of inherited characteristics through genetics and epigenetics.

Fossil Record

Within a creationist view, many things can be expected under the conditions of such a flood because floods are known for laying down rocks and fossils. First, the fossils should show catastrophic and rapid formation, there should be clearly defined kinds of plants and animals with no transition forms in between, and both simple and complex organisms should exist from the beginning. Second, larger fossils should become polystrate in position as the flood layers quickly settle into place. Third, there should be human artifacts to be found in the fossil record. Furthermore, there would likely be layering where sea life is buried first. The bodies of animals and humans would be less likely because of rotting and decaying.

Earth Sciences

Earth Sciences

The earth sciences further demonstrate the accuracy of the Genesis account. Geological evidence mounts rapidly by examining the rates of erosion and deposition alone are enough to show a young planet, but then there is the rapid formation and deformation of sedimentary layers which give strong evidence for a worldwide flood. Climatology shows that the pre-flood and post-flood worlds differed dramatically including reduced oxygen and pressure as well as a rapid ice age which followed the flood.


Geology is the scientific study of the Earth’s land forms and the processes by which it is shaped and changed. There is an emphasis on the processes of deposition and erosion which has formed the surface that we know today. There are about 3,000 naturally occurring minerals formed by heat, crystallization, and pressure. These minerals are found as igneous rocks formed from cooling magma, sedimentary rocks formed by deposition, and metamorphic rocks formed by heat and pressure. One of the major sections of planetary geology is the rock cycle which includes the movement of the Earth’s lithosphere that is also known as plate tectonics. Another field is geomorphology which examines the surface processes of weathering and erosion. Geologic evidence for Creation includes the rates of erosion, deposition, and decay which are consistent with a planet only thousands of years old and the rapid formation and deformation of sedimentary layers fitting a worldwide flood model.


Hydrology is the section of science that studies the physical characteristics, mechanics, and dynamics of water and it’s effects upon the Earth. Special attention is given to the hydrologic cycle close to the surface of the Earth. Hydrology includes the study of the physical and chemical characteristics of water and its movement within Earth’s hydrosphere. This includes the study of hydraulics, the mechanics and dynamics of liquid water. Due to the abundance of water upon the Earth and its high specific heat value, water has a large impact upon climate and heat storage. Many fields of hydrology exist. One major category is oceanography which studies the oceans and seas with the actions of waves, currents, tides, and sea ice. There is also limnology which is the study of lakes, both natural and man-made. Water is the principal constituent of all living things which makes the availability of water a major factor in having an inhabitable environment. About 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by sea water. The actions of water has produced the Earth’s current surface features more than any other physical process and gives strong evidence for a worldwide flood.


Meteorology is the branch of science focusing on the Earth’s atmosphere and weather. It focuses on the structure and dynamics of the atmospheric layers. Meteorology includes the field of climatology. This is the study of long term atmospheric patterns and influences. It also includes aeronomy which is the study of the physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere. Meteorology includes the study of day to day activity found in the lower stratosphere and troposphere. This is used primarily in weather forecasting. The climatological evidence for Creation includes the drastic changes to the atmosphere that occurred during the time of the flood including reduced oxygen and pressure as well as the existence of the polar ice caps.

Physical Sciences


Physics is the branch of science that studies forces, properties of matter, and the fundamental laws of nature. Physics study includes the topics of light and optics, magnetism, heat, and electricity as well as the more recent fields of nuclear, particle, and quantum physics. The study of physics has produced understanding and scientific laws regarding how matter interacts with other matter and how energy moves. The laws of thermodynamics, the laws of motion, and conservation of mass energy all provide powerful and effective models from which to study the physical universe. The evidence for creation in physics includes the general and rapid state of decay, the earth’s decreasing magnetic field, earth and moon interactions, information in the genetic code, and other short lived features on earth and in the universe.


Chemistry is the branch of the physical sciences that examines the properties, composition, and structure of atoms, elements, molecules, substances, and compounds. Within the field of chemistry, there is an emphasis on how these items react, transform, and exchange energy when interacting with each other. Within the earth sciences, chemistry mostly deals with inorganic compounds while in the biological sciences it deals with organic compounds. The chemical evidence for Creation includes the lack of chemical equilibrium and the existence of the medium to heavy atomic elements.


Astronomy is the scientific study of the physical universe outside of the Earth. This includes a wide range of objects including stars, planets, comets, nebulae, and galaxies. It contains the sub-fields of astrophysics which studies the control of matter and energy in the universe as well as cosmology which looks at the origin, current state, and ultimate fate of the universe. This is one of the oldest of the sciences which is recorded by the astronomical artifacts and accurate calendars that remain from early civilizations. The astronomical evidence for Creation includes star formation, planet formation, magnetic fields, comets, and supernova.

Theory of Evolution

Theory of Evolution

Understanding the Theory of Evolution from a creationist perspective.

Last Updated: 08 / 2017
Todd Elder

Todd Elder

Todd Elder has a deep desire to understand and experience Creation. As a Baraminologist, his current research includes developing the Katagenos Species Concept, the Natanzera Classification System, and the Floral Formula Method of determining Plant Kinds. As an author and speaker, his books and seminar materials are designed to encourage a growing relationship with the Creator.
Todd Elder

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